Personal Fitness Merit Badge Requirements

1. Do the following:

a. Before completing requirements 2 through 9, have your health-care practitioner give you a physical examination, using the Scout medical examination form. Describe the examination. Tell what questions the doctor asked about your health. Tell what health or medical recommendations the doctor made and report what you have done in response to the recommendations. Explain the following:

a. Why physical exams are important

b. Why preventative habits (such as exercising regularly) are c. important in maintaining good health, and how the use of tobacco products, alcohol, and other harmful substances can negatively affect our personal fitness.

d. Diseases that can be prevented and how.

e. The seven warning signs of cancer.

f. The youth risk factors that affect cardiovascular fitness in adulthood.

g. Have a dental examination . Get a statement saying that your teeth have been checked and cared for. Tell how to care for your teeth.

2. Explain to your merit badge counselor verbally or in writing what personal fitness means to you, including: Components of personal fitness, Reasons for being fit in all components., What it means to be mentally healthy, What it means to be physically healthy and fit., What it means to be socially healthy. Discuss your activity in the areas of healthy social fitness., What you can do to prevent social, emotional, or mental problems.

3. With your counselor answer and discuss the following questions: Are you free from all curable diseases? Are you living in such a way that your risk of preventable diseases is minimized? Are you immunized and vaccinated according to the advice of your health-care provider? Do you understand the meaning of a nutritious diet and know why it is important for you? Does your diet include foods from all food groups? Are your body weight and composition what you would like them to be, and do you know how to modify them safely through exercise, diet, and behavior modification?

a. Do you carry out daily activities without noticeable effort? Do you have extra energy for other activities?

b. Are you free from habits relating to poor nutrition and the use of alcohol, tobacco, drugs, and other practices that could be harmful to your health?

c. Do you participate in a regular exercise program or recreational activities?

d. Do you sleep well at night and wake up feeling refreshed and energized for the new day?

e. Are you actively involved in the religious organization of your choice, and do you participate in its youth activities?

f. Do you spend quality time with your family and friends in social and recreational activities?

g. Do you support family activities and efforts to maintain a good home life?

4. Explain the following about physical fitness:

a. The components of physical fitness

b. Your weakest and strongest component of physical fitness

c. The need to have a balance in all four components of physical fitness.

d. How the components of personal fitness relate to the Scout Law and Scout Oath.

5. Explain the following about nutrition:

a. The importance of good nutrition

b. What good nutrition means to you

c. How good nutrition is related to the other components of personal fitness

d. The three components of a sound weight (fat) control program.6. Before doing requirements 7 and 8, complete the aerobic fitness, flexibility, muscular strength, and body composition tests as described in the Personal Fitness merit badge pamphlet. Record your results and identify those areas where you feel you need to improve.

  • Aerobic Fitness Test
    Record your performance on one of the following tests:

    1. Run/walk as far as you can in nine minutes
      OR
    2. Run/walk one mile as fast as you can
  • Flexibility Test
    Using a sit-and-reach box constructed according to specifications in this merit badge pamphlet, make four repetitions and record the fourth reach. This last reach must be held steady for 15 seconds to qualify. (Remember to keep your knees down.) Click here to see how to build a Sit and Reach Box.
  •  Strength Tests
    Record your performance on all three tests.

    1. Sit-ups. Record the number of sit-ups done correctly in 60 seconds. The sit-ups must be done in the form explained and illustrated in the merit badge pamphlet. Click here to see the illustration from the merit badge pamphlet
    2. Pull-ups. Record the total number of pull-ups completed correctly in 60 seconds. Be consistent with the procedures presented in the merit badge pamphlet. Click here to see the illustration from the merit badge pamphlet
    3. Push-ups. Record the total number of push-ups completed correctly in 60 seconds. Be consistent with the procedures presented in the merit badge pamphlet. Click here to see the illustration from the merit badge pamphlet
  • Body Composition Test
    Have your parent, counselor, or other adult take and record the following measurements:

    1. Circumference of the right upper arm, midway between the shoulder and the elbow, with the arm hanging naturally and not flexed.
    2. Shoulders, with arms hanging by placing the tape two inches below the top of the shoulders around the arms, chest, and back after breath expiration.
    3. Chest, by placing the tape under the arms and around the chest and back at the nipple line after breath expiration.
    4. Abdomen circumference at the navel level (relaxed).
    5. Circumference of the right thigh, midway between the hip and knee, and not flexed.
  • If possible, have the same person take the measurements whenever you are ready to be remeasured to chart your progress. .

7. Outline a comprehensive 12-week physical fitness program using the results of your fitness tests. Be sure your program incorporates the endurance, intensity, and warm-up guidelines discussed in the Personal Fitness merit badge pamphlet. Before beginning your exercises, have the program approved by your counselor and parents.

8. Complete the physical fitness program you outlined in requirement 7. Complete the physical fitness program you outlined in requirement 7. Keep a log of your fitness program activity (how long you exercised; how far you ran, swam, or biked; how many exercise repetitions you completed; your exercise heart rate; etc.). Repeat the aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and flexibility tests every two weeks and record your results. After the 12th week, repeat the three tests, record your results, and show improvement in each one. For the body composition test, compare and analyze your preprogram and postprogram body composition measurements. Discuss the meaning and benefit of your experience, and describe your long-term plans regarding your personal fitness.

9. Find out about three career opportunities in personal fitness. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss what you learned with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.

Oceanography Merit Badge Requirements

1. Name four branches of oceanography. Describe at least five reasons why it is important for people to learn about the oceans.

2. Define salinity, temperature, and density, and describe how these important properties of seawater are measured by the physical oceanographer. Discuss the circulation and currents of the ocean. Describe the effects of the oceans on weather and climate.

3. Describe the characteristics of ocean waves. Point out the differences among the storm surge, tsunami, tidal wave, and tidal bore. Explain the difference between sea, swell, and surf. Explain how breakers are formed.

4. Draw a cross-section of underwater topography. Show what is meant by: (Name and put on your drawing the following: seamount, guyot, rift valley, canyon, trench, and oceanic ridge. Compare the depths in the oceans with the heights of mountains on land): Continental shelf, Continental slope, Abyssal plain.

5. List the main salts, gases, and nutrients in seawater. Describe some important properties of water. Tell how the animals and plants of the ocean affect the chemical composition of seawater. Explain how differences in evaporation and precipitation affect the salt content of the oceans.

6. Describe some of the biologically important properties of seawater. Define benthos, nekton, and plankton. Name some of the plants and animals that make up each of these groups. Describe the place and importance of phytoplankton in the oceanic food chain.

7. Do ONE of the following: a. Make a plankton net.* Tow the net by a dock, wade with it, hold it in a current, or tow it from a rowboat. Do this for about 20 minutes. Save the sample. Examine it under a microscope or high-power glass. Identify the three most common types of plankton in the sample. b. Make a series of models (clay or plaster and wood) of a volcanic island. Show the growth of an atoll from a fringing reef through a barrier reef. Describe the Darwinian theory of coral reef formation. c. Measure the water temperature at the surface, midwater, and bottom of a body of water four times daily for five consecutive days. You may measure depth with a rock tied to a line. Make a Secchi disk to measure turbidity (how much suspended sedimentation is in the water). Measure the air temperature. Note the cloud cover and roughness of the water. Show your findings (air and water temperature, turbidity) on a graph. Tell how the water temperature changes with air temperature. d. Make a model showing the inshore sediment movement by littoral currents, tidal movement, and wave action. Include such formations as high and low waterlines, low-tide terrace, berm, and coastal cliffs. Show how offshore bars are built up and torn down. e. Make a wave generator. Show reflection and refraction of waves. Show how groins, jetties, and breakwaters affect these patterns. f. Track and monitor satellite images available on the Internet for a specific location for three weeks. Describe what you have learned to your counselor.

8. Do ONE of the following: a. Write a 500-word report on a book about oceanography approved by your counselor. b. Visit one of the following:Write a 500-word report about your visit: Oceanographic research ship OR Oceanographic institute. c. Explain to your troop in a five-minute prepared speech “Why Oceanography Is Important” or describe “Career Opportunities in Oceanography.” (Before making your speech, show your speech outline to your counselor for approval.)

9. Describe four methods that marine scientists use to investigate the ocean, underlying geology, and organisms living in the wate

Cycling Merit Badge Requirements

1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while cycling, including hypothermia, heat reactions, frostbite, dehydration, insect stings, tick bites, snakebites, blisters, and hyperventilation.

2. Clean and adjust a bicycle. Prepare it for inspection using a bicycle safety checklist. Be sure the bicycle meets local laws.

3. Show your bicycle to your counselor for inspection. Point out the adjustments or repairs you have made. Do the following: a. Show all points that need oiling regularly. b. Show points that should be checked regularly to make sure the bicycle is safe to ride. c. Show how to adjust brakes, seat level and height, and steering tube.

4. Describe how to brake safely with foot brakes and with hand brakes.

5. Show how to repair a flat. Use an old bicycle tire.

6. Take a road test with your counselor and demonstrate the following: a. Properly mount, pedal, and brake including emergency stops. b. On an urban street with light traffic, properly execute a left turn from the center of the street; also demonstrate an alternate left turn technique used during periods of heavy traffic. c. Properly execute a right turn. d. Demonstrate appropriate actions at a right-turn-only lane when you are continuing straight. e. Show proper curbside and road-edge riding. Show how to safely ride along a row of parked cars. f. Cross railroad tracks properly.

7. Describe your state’s traffic laws for bicycles. Compare them with motor-vehicle laws. Know the bicycle-safety guidelines.

8. Avoiding main highways:

Take two rides of 10 miles each,

two rides of 15 miles each,

and two rides of 25 miles each.

You must make a report of the rides taken. List dates, routes traveled, and interesting things seen.

9. After fulfilling requirement 8, lay out on a road map a 50-mile trip. Stay away from main highways. Using your map, make this ride in eight hours.

Rifle Shooting Merit Badge Requirements

  1. Do the following:
    1. Explain why BB and pellet air guns must always be treated with the same respect as firearms.
    2. Describe how you would react if a friend visiting your home asked to see your or your family’s firearm(s).
    3. Explain the need for, and use and types of, eye and hearing protection.
    4. Give the main points of the laws for owning and using guns in your community and state.
    5. Explain how hunting is related to the wise use of renewable wildlife resources.
    6. Obtain a copy of the hunting laws for your state. Explain the main points of hunting laws in your state and give any special laws on the use of guns and ammunition.
    7. Identify and explain how you can join or be a part of shooting sports activities.
    8. Explain to your counselor the proper hygienic guidelines used in shooting.
    9. Give your counselor a list of sources that you could contact for information on firearms and their uses.
  2. Do ONE of the following options:

Rifle Shooting (Modern Cartridge Type) Option

  1. Identify the three main parts of a rifle, and tell how they function.
  2. Identify and demonstrate the three fundamental rules for safe gun handling.
  3. Identify the two types of cartridges, their parts, and how they function.
  4. Explain to your counselor what a misfire, hangfire, and squib fire are, and explain the procedures to follow in response to each.
  5. Identify and demonstrate the five fundamentals of shooting a rifle safely.
  6. Identify and explain each rule for safe shooting.
  7. Demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitude necessary to safely shoot a rifle from the benchrest position or supported prone position while using the five fundamentals of rifle shooting.
  8. Identify the basic safety rules for cleaning a rifle, and identify the materials needed.
  9. Demonstrate how to clean a rifle properly and safely.
  10. Discuss what points you would consider in selecting a rifle.
  11. Using a .22 caliber rimfire rifle and shooting from a bench�rest or supported prone position at 50 feet, fire five groups (three shots per group) that can be covered by a quarter. Using these targets, explain how to adjust sights to zero a rifle.
  12. Adjust sights to center the group on the target* and fire five groups (five shots per group). According to the target used, each shot in the group must meet the following minimum score: (1) A-32 targets—9; (2) A-17 or TQ-1 targets—7; (3) A-36 targets—5.

Air Rifle Shooting (BB or Pellet) Option

  1. Identify the three main parts of an air rifle, and tell how they function.
  2. Identify and demonstrate the three fundamental rules for safe gun handling.
  3. Identify the two most common types of air rifle ammunition.
  4. Identify and demonstrate the five fundamentals of shooting a rifle safely.
  5. Identify and explain each rule for shooting an air rifle safely.
  6. Demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitude necessary to safely shoot a target from the benchrest position or supported prone position while using the five fundamentals of rifle shooting.
  7. Identify the basic safety rules for cleaning an air rifle, and identify the materials needed.
  8. Demonstrate how to clean an air rifle safely.
  9. Discuss what points you would consider in selecting an air rifle.
  10. Using a BB gun or pellet air rifle and shooting from a benchrest or supported prone position at 15 feet for BB guns or 33 feet for air rifles, fire five groups (three shots per group) that can be covered by a quarter.
  11. Adjust sights to center the group on the target and fire five groups (five shots per group). According to the target used, each shot in the group must meet the following minimum score: (1) BB rifle at 15 feet or 5 meters using TQ-5 targets—8; (2) pellet air rifle at 25 feet using TQ-5 targets—8, at 33 feet or 10 meters using AR-1 targets—6.

Muzzleloading Rifle Shooting Option

  1. Give a brief history of the development of muzzleloading rifles.
  2. Identify principal parts of percussion and flintlock rifles and discuss how they function.
  3. Demonstrate and discuss the safe handling of muzzleloading rifles.
  4. Identify the various grades of black powder and their proper use.
  5. Discuss proper safety procedures pertaining to black powder use and storage.
  6. Discuss proper components of a load.
  7. Identify proper procedures and accessories used for loading a muzzleloading rifle.
  8. Demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitude necessary to safely shoot a muzzleloading rifle on a range, including range procedures.
  9. Shoot a target with a muzzleloading rifle using the five fundamentals of firing a shot.
  10. Identify the materials needed to clean a muzzleloading rifle safely. Using these materials, demonstrate how to clean a muzzleloading rifle safely.
  11. Identify the causes of a muzzleloading rifle’s failure to fire and explain or demonstrate proper correction procedures.
  12. Discuss what points you would consider in selecting a muzzleloading rifle.
  13. Using a muzzleloading rifle of .45 or .50 caliber and shooting from a benchrest or supported prone position, fire three groups (three shots per group) at 50 feet that can be covered by the base of a standard-size soft drink can.
  14. Center the group on the target and fire three groups (five shots per group). According to the target used, each shot in the group must meet the following minimum score: (1) at 25 yards using NRA A-23 or NMLRA 50-yard targets—7; (2) at 50 yards using NRA A-25 or NMLRA 100-yard targets—7.

Chess Merit Badge Requirements

1. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the history of the game of chess. Explain why it is considered a game of planning and strategy.

2. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the following: a. The benefits of playing chess, including developing critical thinking skills, concentration skills, and decision-making skills, and how these skills can help you in other areas of your life, b. Sportsmanship and chess etiquette

3. Demonstrate to your counselor that you know each of the following. Then, using Scouting’s Teaching EDGE, teach the following to a Scout who does not know how to play chess: a. The name of each chess piece , b. How to set up a chessboard , c. How each chess piece moves, including castling and en passant captures

4. Do the following:a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. , b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. , c. Explain four opening principles. , d. Explain the four rules for castling. , e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a “scholar’s mate” and a “fool’s mate.” , f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw.

5. Do the following: a. Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time. , b. Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug. , c. Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1, the white rooks on a1 and h1, and the black king on e5. With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king., d. Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor.

6. Do ONE of the following: a. Play at least three games of chess with other Scouts and/or your merit badge counselor. Replay the games from your score sheets and discuss with your counselor how you might have played each game differently., b. Play in a scholastic (youth) chess tournament and use your score sheets from that tournament to replay your games with your merit badge counselor. Discuss with your counselor how you might have played each game differently., c. Organize and run a chess tournament with at least four players, plus you. Have each competitor play at least two games

Nuclear Science Merit Badge Requirements

1. Do the following: a. Tell what radiation is. b. Describe the hazards of radiation to humans, the environment, and wildlife. Explain the difference between radiation exposure and contamination. In your explanation, discuss the nature and magnitude of radiation risks to humans from nuclear power, medical radiation, and background radiation including radon. Explain the ALARA principle and measures required by law to minimize these risks.
c. Describe the radiation hazard symbol and explain where it should be used. Tell why and how people must use radiation or radioactive materials carefully.

2. Do the following: a. Tell the meaning of the following: atom, nucleus, proton, neutron, electron, quark, isotope; alpha particle, beta particle, gamma ray, X-ray; ionization, radioactivity, and radioisotope. b. Choose an element from the periodic table. Construct 3-D models for the atoms of three isotopes of this element, showing neutrons, protons, and electrons. Use the three models to explain the difference between atomic number and mass number and the difference between the quark structure of a neutron and a proton.

3. Do ONE of the following; then discuss modern particle physics with your counselor: a. Visit an accelerator (research lab) or university where people study the properties of the nucleus or nucleons. b. Name three particle accelerators and describe several experiments that each accelerator performs.

4. Do TWO of the following; then discuss with your counselor the different kinds of radiation and how they can be used: a. Build an electroscope. Show how it works. Place a radiation source inside and explain the effect it causes. b. Make a cloud chamber. Show how it can be used to see the tracks caused by radiation. Explain what is happening. c. Obtain a sample of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. Prepare the two foods and compare their taste and texture. Store the leftovers in separate containers and under the same conditions. For a period of 14 days, observe their 149 rate of decomposition or spoilage, and describe the differences you see on days 5, 10, and 14. d. Visit a place where radioisotopes are being used. Using a drawing, explain how and why they are used.

5. Do ONE of the following; then discuss with your counselor the principles of radiation safety: a. Using a radiation survey meter and a radioactive source, show how the counts per minute change as the source gets closer to or farther from the radiation detector. Place three different materials between the source and the detector, then explain any differences in the measurements per minute. Explain how time, distance, and shielding can reduce an individual’s radiation dose. b. Describe how radon is detected in homes. Discuss the steps taken for the long-term and short-term test methods, tell how to interpret the results, and explain when each type of test should be used. Explain the health concern related to radon gas and tell what steps can be taken to reduce radon in buildings. c. Visit a place where X-rays are used. Draw a floor plan of this room. Show where the unit, the unit operator, and the patient would be when the X-ray unit is operated. Explain the precautions taken and the importance of those precautions.

6. Do ONE of the following; then discuss with your counselor how nuclear energy is used to produce electricity: a. Make a drawing showing how nuclear fission happens, labeling all details. Draw another picture showing how a chain reaction could be started and how it could be stopped. Explain what is meant by a “critical mass.” b. Build a model of a nuclear reactor. Show the fuel, control rods, shielding, moderator, and cooling material. Explain how a reactor could be used to change nuclear energy into electrical energy or make things radioactive. c. Find out how many nuclear power plants exist in the United States. Locate the one nearest your home. Find out what percentage of electricity in the United States is generated by nuclear power plants, by coal, and by gas.

7. Give an example of each of the following in relation to how energy from an atom can be used: nuclear medicine, environmental applications, industrial applications, space exploration, and radiation therapy. For each example, explain the application and its significance to nuclear science.

8. Find out about three career opportunities in nuclear science that interest you. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession and discuss this with your counselor. Tell why this profession interests you.

Personal Management Merit Badge Requirements

1. Do the following: a. Choose an item that your family might want to purchase that is considered a major expense. b. Write a plan that tells how your family would save money for the purchase identified in requirement 1a; 1. Discuss the plan with your merit badge counselor, 2. Discuss the plan with your family, 3. Discuss how other family needs must be considered in this plan. c. Develop a written shopping strategy for the purchase identified in requirement 1a; 1. Determine the quality of the item or service (using consumer publications or rating systems). 2. Comparison shop for the item. Find out where you can buy the item for the best price. (Provide prices from at least two different price sources.) Call around; study ads. Look for a sale or discount coupon. Consider alternatives. Can you buy the item used? Should you wait for a sale?

2. Do the following: a. Prepare a budget reflecting your expected income (allowance, gifts, wages), expenses, and savings. Track your actual income, expenses, and savings for 13 consecutive weeks. (You may use the forms provided in this pamphlet, devise your own, or use a computer generated version.) When complete, present the results to your merit badge counselor. b. Compare expected income with expected expenses; 1. If expenses exceed income, determine steps to balance your budget. 2. If income exceeds expenses, state how you would use the excess money (new goal, savings).

3. Discuss with your merit badge counselor FIVE of the following concepts: a. The emotions you feel when you receive money. b. Your understanding of how the amount of money you have with you affects your spending habits. c. Your thoughts when you buy something new and your thoughts about the same item three months later. Explain the concept of buyer’s remorse. d. How hunger affects you when shopping for food items (snacks, groceries). e. Your experience of an item you have purchased after seeing or hearing advertisements for it. Did the item work as well as advertised? f. Your understanding of what happens when you put money into a savings account. g. Charitable giving. Explain its purpose and your thoughts about it. h. What you can do to better manage your money.

4. Explain the following to your merit badge counselor: a. The differences between saving and investing, including reasons for using one over the other. b. The concepts of return on investment and risk. c. The concepts of simple interest and compound interest and how these affected the results of your investment exercise.

5. Select five publicly traded stocks from the business section of the newspaper. Explain to your merit badge counselor the importance of the following information for each stock: a. Current price. b. How much the price changed from the previous day. c. The 52-week high and the 52-week low prices.

6. Pretend you have $1,000 to save, invest, and help prepare yourself for the future. Explain to your merit badge counselor the advantages or disadvantages of saving or investing in each of the following: a. Common stocks. b. Mutual funds. c. Life insurance. c. A certificate of deposit (CD). d. A savings account or U.S. savings bond

7. Explain to your merit badge counselor the following: a. What a loan is, what interest is, and how the annual percentage rate (APR) measures the true cost of a loan. b. The different ways to borrow money. c. The differences between a charge card, debit card, and credit card. What are the costs and pitfalls of using these financial tools? Explain why it is unwise to make only the minimum payment on your credit card. d. Credit reports and how personal responsibility can affect your credit report. e. Ways to eliminate debt.

8. Demonstrate to your merit badge counselor your understanding of time management by doing the following: a. Write a “to do” list of tasks or activities, such as homework assignments, chores, and personal projects, that must be done in the coming week. List these in order of importance to you. b. Make a seven-day calendar or schedule. Put in your set activities, such as school classes, sports practices or games, jobs or chores, and/or Scout or church or club meetings, then plan when you will do all the tasks from your “to do” list between your set activities. c. Follow the one-week schedule you planned. Keep a daily diary or journal during each of the seven days of this week’s activities, writing down when you completed each of the tasks on your “to do” list compared to when you scheduled them. d. Review your “to do” list, one-week schedule, and diary/journal to understand when your schedule worked and when it did not work. With your merit badge counselor, discuss and understand what you learned from this requirement and what you might do differently the next time.

9. Prepare a written project plan demonstrating the steps below, including the desired outcome. This is a project on paper, not a real-life project. Examples could include planning a camping trip, developing a community service project or a school or religious event, or creating an annual patrol plan with additional activities not already included in the troop annual plan. Discuss your completed project plan with your merit badge counselor. a. Define the project. What is your goal? b. Develop a timeline for your project that shows the steps you must take from beginning to completion. c. Describe your project. d. Develop a list of resources. Identify how these resources will help you achieve your goal. e. If necessary, develop a budget for your project.

10. Do the following: a. Choose a career you might want to enter after high school or college graduation. b. Research the limitations of your anticipated career and discuss with your merit badge counselor what you have learned about qualifications such as education, skills, and experience.

Backpacking Merit Badge Requirements

1. Discuss the prevention of and treatment for the health concerns that could occur while backpacking, including hypothermia, heat reactions, frostbite, dehydration, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite, and blisters.

2. Do the following: a. List 10 items that are essential to be carried on any backpacking trek and explain why each item is necessary., b. Describe 10 ways you can limit the weight and bulk to be carried in your pack without jeopardizing your health or safety.

3. Do the following: a. Define limits on the number of backpackers appropriate for a trek crew., b. Describe how a trek crew should be organized., c. Tell how you would minimize risk on a backpacking trek.

4. Do the following: a. Describe the importance of using Leave No Trace principles while backpacking, and at least five ways you can lessen the crew’s impact on the environment., b. Describe proper methods of handling human and other wastes while on a backpacking trek. Describe the importance of and means to assure personal cleanliness while on a backpacking trek., c. Tell what factors are important in choosing a campsite.

5. Do the following: a, Demonstrate two ways to treat water and tell why water treatment is essential., b. Explain to your counselor the importance of staying well-hydrated during a trek.

6. Do the following: a. Demonstrate that you can read topographic maps., b. While on a trek, use a map and compass to establish your position on the ground at least three times at three different places, OR use a GPS receiver to establish your position on a topographic map and on the ground at least three times at three different places., c. Explain how to stay found, and what to do if you get lost.

7.  Tell how to prepare properly for and deal with inclement weather.

8. Do the following: a. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of three different types of backpacking stoves using at least three different types of fuel., b. Demonstrate that you know how to operate a backpacking stove safely and to handle liquid fuel safely., c. Prepare at least three meals using a stove and fuel you can carry in a backpack., d. Demonstrate that you know how to keep cooking and eating gear clean and sanitary, and that you practice proper methods for food storage while on a backpacking trek.

9. Do the following: a. Write a plan for a patrol backpacking hike that includes a schedule., b Show that you know how to properly pack your personal gear and your share of the crew’s gear and food. c. Show you can properly shoulder your pack and adjust it for proper wear., d. Conduct a prehike inspection of the patrol and its equipment., e. While carrying your pack, complete a hike of at least 2 miles.

10. Using Leave No Trace principles, participate in at least three backpacking treks of at least three days each and at least 15 miles each, and using at least two different campsites. Carry everything you will need throughout the trek.

11. Do the following: a. Write a plan for a backpacking trek of at least five days using at least three different campsites and covering at least 30 miles. Your plan must include a description of and route to the trek area, a schedule (including a daily schedule), a list of food and equipment needs, a safety and emergency plan, and a budget. b. Using Leave No Trace principles, take the trek planned and, while on the trek, complete at least one service project approved by your merit badge counselor. c. Keep a daily journal during the trek that includes a day-by-day description of your activities, including notes about what worked well and thoughts about improvements that could be made for the next trek.

Aviation Merit Badge Requirements

1. Do the following:

a. Define “aircraft.” Describe some kinds and uses of aircraft today. Explain the operation of piston, turboprop, and jet engines.

b. Point out on a model airplane the forces that act on an airplane in flight.

c. Explain how an airfoil generates lift, how the primary control surfaces (ailerons, elevators, and rudder) affect the airplane’s attitude, and how a propeller produces thrust.

d. Demonstrate how the control surfaces of an airplane are used for takeoff, straight climb, level turn, climbing turn, descending turn, straight descent, and landing.

e. Explain the following: the recreational pilot and the private pilot certificates; the instrument rating.

2. Do TWO of the following:

a. Take a flight in an aircraft, with your parent’s permission. Record the date, place, type of aircraft, and duration of flight, and report on your impressions of the flight.

b. Under supervision, perform a preflight inspection of a light airplane.

c. Obtain and learn how to read an aeronautical chart. Measure a true course on the chart. Correct it for magnetic variation, compass deviation, and wind drift. Arrive at a compass heading.

d. Using one of many flight simulator software packages available for computers, “fly” the course and heading you established in requirement 2c or another course you have plotted.

e. On a map, mark a route for an imaginary airline trip to at least three different locations. Start from the commercial airport nearest your home. From timetables (obtained from agents or online from a computer, with your parent’s permission), decide when you will get to and leave from all connecting points. Create an aviation flight plan and itinerary for each destination.

f. Explain the purposes and functions of the various instruments found in a typical single-engine aircraft: attitude indicator, heading indicator, altimeter, airspeed indicator, turn and bank indicator, vertical speed indicator, compass, navigation (GPS and VOR) and communication radios, tachometer, oil pressure gauge, and oil temperature gauge.

g. Create an original poster of an aircraft instrument panel. Include and identify the instruments and radios discussed in requirement 2f.

3. Do ONE of the following:

a. Build and fly a fuel-driven or battery-powered electric model airplane. Describe safety rules for building and flying model airplanes. Tell safety rules for use of glue, paint, dope, plastics, fuel, and battery pack.

b. Build a model FPG-9. Get others in your troop or patrol to make their own model, then organize a competition to test the precision of flight and landing of the models.

4. Do ONE of the following:

a. Visit an airport. After the visit, report on how the facilities are used, how runways are numbered, and how runways are determined to be “active.”

b. Visit a Federal Aviation Administration facility–a control tower, terminal radar control facility, air route traffic control center, flight service station, or Flight Standards District Office. (Phone directory listings are under U.S. Government Offices, Transportation Department, Federal Aviation Administration. Call in advance.) Report on the operation and your impressions of the facility.

c. Visit an aviation museum or attend an air show. Report on your impressions of the museum or show.

5. Find out about three career opportunities in aviation. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.

Lifesaving Merit Badge Requirements

1. Complete Second Class rank requirements 7a through 7c and First Class rank requirements 9a through 9c.

2. Explain the following: a. Common drowning situations and how to prevent them., b. How to identify persons in the water who need assistance., c. The order of methods in water rescue., d. How rescue techniques vary depending on the setting and the condition of the person needing assistance., e. Situations for which in-water rescues should not be undertaken.

3. Demonstrate “reaching” rescues using various items such as arms, legs, towels, shirts, paddles, and poles.

4. Demonstrate “throwing” rescues using various items such as lines, ring buoys, rescue bags, and free-floating supports. Successfully place at least one such aid within reach of a practice victim 25 feet from shore.

5. Show or explain the use of rowboats, canoes, or other small craft in performing rescues.

6. List various items that can be used as rescue aids in a noncontact swimming rescue. Explain why buoyant aids are preferred.

7. Perform the following equipment-based rescues for a conscious practice subject 30 feet from shore. Use a proper entry and a strong approach stroke. Speak to the subject to determine his condition and to provide instructions and encouragement. a. Present a rescue tube to the subject, release it, and escort the victim to safety., b. Present a rescue tube to the subject and use it to tow the victim to safety., c. Present a buoyant aid other than a rescue tube to the subject, release it, and escort the victim to safety., d. Present a buoyant aid other than a rescue tube to the subject and use it to tow the victim to safety., e. Remove street clothes in 20 seconds or less and use a nonbuoyant aid, such as a shirt or towel, to tow the subject to safety. Explain when it is appropriate to remove heavy clothing before attempting a swimming rescue.

8. Explain the importance of avoiding contact with an active victim and describe lead-and-wait tactics.

9. Perform the following nonequipment rescues for a conscious practice subject 30 feet from shore. Begin in the water from a position near the subject. Speak to the subject to determine his condition and to provide instructions and encouragement. a. Provide a swim-along assist for a calm, responsive, tired swimmer moving with a weak forward stroke., b. Perform an armpit tow for a calm, responsive, tired swimmer resting with a back float., c. Perform a cross-chest carry for an exhausted, passive victim who does not respond to instructions to aid himself.

10. In deep water, show how to escape from a victim’s grasp on your wrist. Repeat for front and rear holds about the head and shoulders.

11. Perform the following rescues for an unconscious practice subject at or near the surface 30 feet from shore. Use a proper entry and strong approach stroke. Speak to the subject and splash water on him to determine his condition before making contact. Remove the victim from the water, with assistance if needed, and position for CPR. a. Perform an equipment assist using a buoyant aid., b. Perform a front approach and wrist tow., c. Perform a rear approach and armpit tow.

12. Describe how to respond if a victim submerges before being reached by a rescuer, and do the following: a. Recover a 10-pound weight in 8 to 10 feet of water using a feetfirst surface dive., b. Repeat using a headfirst surface dive.

13. Demonstrate knowledge of resuscitation procedures: a. Describe how to recognize the need for rescue breathing and CPR., b. Demonstrate proper CPR technique for at least 3 minutes using a mannequin designed to simulate ventilations and compressions.

14. Demonstrate management of a spinal injury: a. Explain the signs and symptoms of a spinal injury., b. Support a faceup victim in calm, shallow water., c. Turn a subject from a facedown to a faceup position while maintaining support.

15. Show that you know first aid for other injuries or illnesses that could occur while swimming or boating, including hypothermia, heat reactions, muscle cramps, sunburn, stings, and hyperventilation.